Obtain least-squares means for linear, generalized linear, and mixed models. Compute contrasts or linear functions of least-squares means, and comparisons of slopes. Plots and compact letter displays. Least-squares means were proposed in Harvey, W (1960) "Least-squares analysis of data with unequal subclass numbers", Tech Report ARS-20-8, USDA National Agricultural Library, and discussed further in Searle, Speed, and Milliken (1980) "Population marginal means in the linear model: An alternative to least squares means", The American Statistician 34(4), 216-221 <doi:10.1080/00031305.1980.10483031>. NOTE: lsmeans now relies primarily on code in the 'emmeans' package. 'lsmeans' will be archived in the near future.
This version of lsmeans can be found in the following snapshots: